Did You Know Marcus Garvey Created The Pan African Flag?

by Delano George Bell

Did you Know Marcus Garvey Created the Pan African Flag

Many African-Americans fly the Pan-African flag in the U.S. during Black History Month, but its origin and history have been lost for some since its adoption in 1920 by the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). It was created by Marcus Garvey, founder of the American Black Nationalist Movement based in Harlem in New York City.

The Pan-African flag features three horizontal strips – red, black and green. The colors represent the blood of people of African American ancestry, black for the people, and green for the motherland of Africa. The Pan-African flag is also known as the Black Liberation and African American flag.

His platform was one of greater unity between Africans and those of African descent. He advocated for the Back-to-Africa Movement, which differentiated Garvey from other civil rights activists. While his ideas increased membership in UNIA, his black separatist views, violent rhetoric, and link to the KKK to further separatism were alienating factors for many.

In the U.S., Garvey launched the Negro Factories Corporation and the Negro Word newspaper. He became president of the Black Star Line shipping and passenger company in 1919. Garvey was deported to Jamaica in 1927, relocated to London in 1935, and died there in 1940. His body was relocated to Jamaica in 1964 and reburied in National Heroes Park in Kingston

During his lifetime, Garvey had considerable influence within the Black Power Movement, the Nation of Islam, and Rastafari. Variations of Garvey’s flag has been used in multiple territories of Africa and the Americas and his flag continues to be a model for flags across Africa. A blue plaque marks his home at 53 Talgarth Road.


Lexann Media wishes Reggae Legend Beres Hammond a happy 66th birthday, as we take a look back at his historic performance with VIP Connected Entertainment at the 2006 St. Kitts Nevis National Carnival

Beres Hammond to perform at St. Kitts Nevis Carnival International Night.{Basseterre, St Kitts} 


On Tuesday November 21, VIP Connected and The National Carnival Committee held a press conference at the St Kitts Marriott Resort launching the 2006/07 National Carnival’s headline artist for the International Night. Julie “Lexy” Brookes, CEO of VIP Connected Entertainment announced that Jamaican Reggae Sensation Beres Hammond and local rising star Masud Sadiki are the headliners for the 2006/07 International Night of the Stars. The second annual International Night is once again proudly sponsored by Cable & Wireless. Brookes said that this year’s Carnival will be crazier than before and has no doubt that the headline acts will put on a spectacular performance. Proceeds from the event will be dedicated to the Dieppe Bay Primary School to assist in their activities. Kittitian singer and local headliner Masud Sadiki said he was proud of this opportunity as he has lots of respect for Beres Hammond. He went on to thank bMobile for all their support and said that the show will definetely be a wholesome experience with positive flavour where babies and grandmothers can enjoy. 

Masud invites the world to St Kitts for Carnival 2006/07 Also present at the head table of the press conference were Minister Richard Skerritt of Tourism, Sports & Culture, Patricia Walters CEO of Cable & Wireless, Gus Williams Chairman of Carnival and Allister Williams Executive Director of Festivals.  
Some of the officials at the Press Conference. Photo by Suelika N. Buchanan/SKNVIbes.comWalters said to Masud that she hopes this event will spring board him to the next level and reiterated her company’s support towards Carnival. Walters noted that over the years Cable & Wireless has contributed to many areas of Carnival such as the Carnival Queens, Children’s Carnival Troupes, Female Bacchanal and the Calypso Monarch Competition. 
This year they will re-introduce an Iron Band to help revive the culture of Carnival. Additionally, the Extreme Jouvert troupe which is hosted by DJ Magic Fingers Ronnie Rascal will also be receiving support. Walters further stated that the level of sponsorship to the Carnival, which is the sum of $135,000 reflects their sincerity and passion for culture and that bMobile is in for the long term. Gus Williams praised Brookes for her hard work and for doing an excellent job with the contributions she has made to Carnival. The chairman of the National Carnival confidently said that Carnival 2006 will undoubtedly be greater that 2005.
CEO of VIP Connected Julie “Lexy” Brookes (L) and Kittitian sensation Masud Sadiki.He further stated that the reason for this is because they have learnt lessons from the past year and therefore he would ensure that this Carnival is indeed the best. Speaking on some of the upcoming plans for Carnival, Allister Williams said that Carnival is alive and well. “The Spirit of Christmas starts on the 11th– 14th and will be held in the Circus,” he said. “The Spirit of Christmas is a celebration where music, dancing and many different forms of entertainment are showcased.” He added that plans are going well and he was happy to announce that the costume builders from St Vincent have arrived in St Kitts and therefore the Children’s Carnival costume-building is underway and is being sponsored by Cable & Wireless. Skerritt opened his remarks about the launching of Carnival 2006 by saying, “St Kitts and Nevis, we just love this place”. He acknowledged that he has witnessed a forward movement in the Heritage of Carnival that belongs to all of us.  It cannot grow without the involvement of sponsors and the participation of its country men. “It is people, it is our heritage, it is our future,” he said. Skerritt affirmed that for the first time, a proper financial accountability of the last two Carnivals will be made available to the public via the media. He said the report would be brought before Parliament before the beginning of this year’s Carnival. Juni Liburd and Ronnie Rascal who were both present at the conference were praised and thanked by the Minister for their continued contribution to Carnival. The press conference ended with the playing of one of Beres’ songs titled “Sugar You Want”. 

Artist – CHARLY BLACK Has SO MANY REASONS To Be “RAVIN” About 2021, No “DIGGY DEE”; It’s Definitely Looking Like It’s His Year!

Desmond Ménde (born 6 April 1980), better known as Charly Black, alternatively known as Charly Blacks, and originally known as Tony Mentol, is a Jamaican reggae and dancehall singer, selector and singjay. He is best known for his track “Gyal You a Party Animal”, which became popular outside Jamaica in regions including MexicoSouth America, and Spain. The song was a hit in these regions, as well as in the Caribbean and Central America. It is also one of the most watched dancehall videos on YouTube with over 200 million views. Other songs include “Whine & Kotch”, “Girlfriend”, “Bike Back”, and “Hoist & Wine”. Mendez has also collaborated with other music artists, including his collaboration with American Latin pop star Jencarlos Canela in the single “Pa Que Me Invitan”.

Just 2 and half months into the New Year and Charly Black has already dropped 2 #1 bangers: “Ravin”, and “So Many Reasons”.

Mr. Trelawny Got “So Many Reasons” To Be Celebrating His Latest Hits!

Connect with Charly Black on social media #Unstoppable

He was the last surviving original member of the group, which also featured Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. Together they helped spread the music of Jamaica worldwide. Story Credit: The New York Times

Bunny Wailer, one of the founders of the seminal reggae group the Wailers, in performance in 2016.
Bunny Wailer, one of the founders of the seminal reggae group the Wailers, in performance in 2016. Credit…Mediapunch/Shutterstock
Ben Sisario

By Ben Sisario

  • March 2, 2021 Updated 6:28 p.m. ET

Bunny Wailer, the last surviving original member of the Wailers, the Jamaican trio that helped establish and popularize reggae music — its other founders were Bob Marley and Peter Tosh — died on Tuesday at a hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. He was 73.

His death was confirmed by Maxine Stowe, his manager, who did not state a cause.

Formed in 1963, when its members were still teenagers, the Wailers were among the biggest stars of ska, the upbeat Jamaican style that borrowed from American R&B. On early hits like “Simmer Down” and “Rude Boy,” the three young men — who in those days wore suits and had short-cropped hair — sang in smooth harmony, threading some social commentary in with their onomatopoeic “doo-be doo-be doo-bas.”

“The Wailers were Jamaica’s Beatles,” Randall Grass of Shanachie Records, an American label that worked extensively with Bunny Wailer in the 1980s and ’90s, said in a phone interview.

By the early 1970s, the Wailers — now in loose clothes and dreadlocks — became one of the flagship groups of a slower, muskier new Jamaican sound: reggae. The group’s 1973 album “Catch a Fire,” with songs like “Concrete Jungle” and “Slave Driver,” is one of the canonical releases of so-called roots reggae, with a rock-adjacent production style and socially conscious lyrics.

Marley and Tosh were the group’s primary songwriters and lead vocalists. But Bunny, who also played percussion instruments, was a critical part of their harmony style. Among fans at least, the three men settled into character roles like reggae superheroes.

“Peter Tosh was the real militant one, then Bob was the poetic revolutionary humanist,” said Vivien Goldman, the author of “The Book of Exodus: The Making and Meaning of Bob Marley and the Wailers’ Album of the Century” (2006). “Bunny was regarded as the spiritual mystic.”

Born Neville Livingston, he took the name Bunny when he joined the group; he was variously credited as Bunny Livingston or Livingstone before settling on Bunny Wailer in the 1970s.

The Wailers toured Britain and began to build international acclaim, but by 1973 the original trio had split up. Marley, heading toward global stardom, began performing under the billing of Bob Marley and the Wailers. Bunny disliked touring and, as a follower of the Rastafari faith, he’d been uncomfortable performing in bars, viewing them as unsuitable venues for the group’s spiritual message.

Neville Livingston was born in Kingston on April 10, 1947, and grew up in the village of Nine Mile in St. Ann Parish, off the northern coast of Jamaica. He and Marley met as children there, and for a time Marley’s mother, Cedella, lived with Neville’s father, Thaddeus, in the Trench Town section of Kingston.

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The two friends met Peter Tosh — whose real name was Winston McIntosh — through Joe Higgs, of the Jamaican pop duo Higgs and Wilson. Early on the Wailers also included Junior Braithwaite and Beverly Kelso, and they recorded with top producers of the day like Coxsone Dodd, Leslie Kong and Lee (Scratch) Perry.

After leaving the Wailers, Bunny continued to make music, including his first solo album, “Blackheart Man,” in 1976; he produced it himself, wrote most of the songs and released it on his own label, Solomonic. But while Marley and Tosh toured widely, Bunny largely stayed in Jamaica, where he built a powerful mystique.

He made his New York debut in 1986 at Madison Square Garden, with opening acts and backup groups, like the vocal ensemble the Psalms, that he had chosen to represent Jamaican musical history. Three years later, when he performed at Radio City Music Hall, Jon Pareles of The New York Times described the show as being “like a gospel service with a reggae beat,” with Bunny dressed in a robe decorated with the silhouette of Africa, a Star of David, the Lion of Judah and marijuana leaves.

Bob Marley died of cancer in 1981. Peter Tosh was shot to death in 1987.

Bunny Wailer and Wife

According to Ms. Stowe, Bunny Wailer’s survivors include 13 children, 10 sisters, three brothers and grandchildren. Ms. Stowe said that Jean Watt, his partner of more than 50 years, had dementia and had been missing since May.

Bunny won the Grammy Award for best reggae album three times. Two of those albums were tributes to Marley.

He was given Jamaica’s Order of Merit in 2017. Peter Phillips, a minister in Jamaica’s parliament, said that his death “brings to a close the most vibrant period of Jamaica’s musical experience” and “a good, conscious Jamaican brethren.”



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